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Andreoli, A. (2010), Le syndrome de Médée, parcours sadique de la perte d’amour

Dr. Antonio Andreoli, a psychiatrist in Geneva, Switzerland, published this article about the Medea syndrome in a medical journal. The article addresses the clinical, diagnostic, and legal aspects of parental alienation, as well as treatment strategies.

Appendix C: Parental Alienation — 160 Books

A large collection of books regarding parental alienation, primarily by mental health professionals, but some by alienated parents about their lived experiences.

APSAC Advisor, 2020

This is a Special Section of the APSAC Advisor, the newsletter of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children. The articles by Kathleen Faller, Madelyn Milchman, Robert Geffner, and Aileen Sandoval contain much misinformation and many false statements regarding parental alienation.

Baker, A. J. L. (2015), How to Select an Expert in Parental Alienation

Article by 12 members of PASG, which provides criteria for identifying expertise in parental alienation.

Baker, A. J. L. (2018), Reliability and Validity of the Four-Factor Model of Parental Alienation

This paper by PASG member Amy Baker address the Four-Factor Model, which includes: (1) a prior positive relationship between the child and the now rejected parent; (2) absence of maltreatment by the rejected parent; (3) use of alienating behaviors by the favored parent; and (4) presence of behavioral manifestations of alienation in the child.

Baker, A. J. L., Verrocchio, M. C. (2013), Italian College Student-Reported Childhood Exposure to Parental Alienation: Correlates with Well-Being

Amy J. L. Baker and her colleagues have studied long-term effects of exposure to alienating behaviors as children. In this retrospective study, previously exposed Italian college students reported poor functioning with respect to self-esteem, depression, adult attachment styles, and other issues.

BBC – Video, 2016

This video is a short documentary regarding parental alienation, which was produced by the BBC in the United Kingdom. PASG member Karen Woodall is one of the experts interviewed on the video. You can see the video by accessing this DropBox location: .

Ben-Ami, N., Baker, A. J. L. (2012), The Long-Term Correlates of Childhood Exposure to Parental Alienation on Adult Self-Sufficiency and Well-Being

Amy J. L. Baker and her colleagues have studied long-term effects of exposure to alienating behaviors as children. In this retrospective study, previously exposed adults reported higher rates of major depressive disorder, insecure attachment styles, and other problems.

Benjamin, G. A. H., et al. (2018), Family Evaluation in Custody Litigation, second edition

This book, published in January 2018, contains serious misstatements regarding parental alienation. The book is part of a series published by the American Psychological Association. The four authors were G. Andrew H. Benjamin, Connie J. Beck, Morgan Shaw, and Robert Geffner. The problematic sentences, indicated on the attached document, were probably written by Robert Geffner.

Bensussan, P. (2017), Aliénation parentale, abus psychologique de l’enfant et DSM-5

The title of this article in English is, "Parental Alienation, Child Psychological Abuse, and DSM-5," by PASG member Paul Bensussan. This article was initially deleted from a French medical encyclopedia, but then was published in a French medical journal.

Bensussan, P. (2018), Aliénation parentale, abus psychologique de l’enfant et DSM-5

PASG member Paul Bensussan published an article in a French legal journal, Gazette du Palais, which explains how the concept of parental alienation is in DSM-5, even if the actual words are not.

Bernet, W. (2013), Parental Alienation and DSM-5

DSM-5 diagnoses that relate to children with PA.

Bernet, W. (2015), Children of High-Conflict Divorce Face Many Challenges

Article in peer-reviewed psychiatric publication, which explains the DSM-5 diagnoses that apply to parental alienation and other problems manifested by children of high-conflict divorce.

Bernet, W. (2015), Parental Alienation: Misinformation versus Facts

Three articles regarding PA in The Judges' Journal: introduction by Judge Stephanie Domitrovich; allegations that PAS is "junk science," by Rebecca M. Thomas and James T. Richardson; article about "misinformation versus facts" by William Bernet.

Bernet, W. (2017), Understanding the Reality of Parental Alienation

This article was published as an editorial in L’Encéphale, a French medical journal. The Bernet editorial was published alongside an article by PASG member Paul Bensussan, "Aliénation parentale, abus psychologique de l'enfant et DSM-5."

Bernet, W., Gregory, N., Reay, K. M., Rohner, R. P. (2018), An Objective Measure of Splitting in Parental Alienation: The Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire

This quantitative research indicates that a psychological test, the PARQ, reliably identifies children and adolescents with severe parental alienation.

Bernet, W., Gregory, N., Rohner, R. P., Reay, K. M. (2020), Measuring the Difference Between Parental Alienation and Parental Estrangement: The PARQ-Gap

This article introduces and explains the PARQ-Gap, a psychological measurement that identified severely alienated children with 99% accuracy.

Bernet, W., Wamboldt, M. Z., Narrow, W. E. (2016). Child affected by parental relationship distress.

This article clearly explains how parental alienation is included in the concept of "child affected by parental relationship distress," a diagnosis in DSM-5.

Blagg, N., Godfrey, E. (2018), Exploring Parent-Child Relationships in Alienated versus Neglected/Emotionally Abused Children using the Bene-Anthony Family Relations Test

This paper used the Family Relations Test to explore differences between alienated and neglected/emotionally abused children's views and feelings toward their mothers and fathers. Results confirmed that alienated children engaged in splitting.

Boch-Galhau, W. v. (2018), Parental Alienation (Syndrome) – Eine ernst zu nehmende Form von psychischer Kindesmisshandlung

This article provides an overview of parental alienation, along with two case vignettes. The article was published in German in a major peer-reviewed journal, Neuropsychiatrie,, the journal of Austrian Society for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics.

Bogdan, C. (2016), Protocol between Romanian Association for Joint Custody and Institute for Forensic Psychology

PASG colleagues in Romania arranged for parental alienation to be officially recognized by an agency of the Romanian government.

Caddy, G. R. (2012), Family Pathology and the Creation of Madness: A Case Study of Mind Control

PASG member Glenn Ross Caddy describes the evolution of madness in a vulnerable young woman through the progressive manipulation of her religiosity and other beliefs.

Carbó, E. (2011), Dos hipótesis sobre el negacionismo fanatizado

Eric Carbó, who has conducted research on PAS deniers, published "Two Hypotheses on the Fanatical Denial of Parental Alienation Syndrome."

Child, N. (2015), Off-putting Relationships: The Essentials of Child Alienation

PASG member Nick Child, M.D., has developed this concise and comprehensive overview of the field of parental alienation, with particular relevance to the United Kingdom. For the complete document, go to

Clemente, M., Padilla-Racero, D. (2015), Are Children Susceptible to Manipulation?

The file contains: the original article by Miguel Clemente and Dolores Padilla-Racero; the critical commentary by William Bernet, Maria Cristina Verrocchio, and Stanley Korosi; and the response of the Clemente and Padilla-Racero to the critical commentary.

Dalia Erel

Dalia Erel, MSW, is a social worker, psychotherapist and family and couples consultant and is a certified member of the Israeli organization of families and couples therapists. Previously, Dalia conducted a project of parental coordination of high conflict divorced couples including cases of parental alienation. Today, Dalia is managing a private center in Kfar Saba, specializing in cases of high conflict divorced couples and parental alienation, serving as formal consultants for the judges at the local family courts. Recently, Dalia published an article entitled : " Do children divorce their parents?”This article appeared at the local magazine of the social workers organization ( Meida Os ).

Díaz Usandivaras, C. M. (2003), El Síndrome de Alienación Parental (SAP).

This article was published in Derecho de Familia, Revista Interdisciplinaria de Doctrina y Jurisprudencia.


Parental alienation has been discussed in several encyclopedias for mental health and legal professionals.

Evans, Robert A. (2019), Parental Alienation: Child Abuse? — Reportable?

A discussion of child abuse reporting laws in Florida, USA, and whether they apply to persistent alienating behaviors.

Family Law Reform Coalition (2015), Children in Crisis

This executive summary from the Family Law Reform Coalition, an advocacy organization in Australia, states key principles and recommendations for dealing with children of separated and divorced parents.

Gardner R. A. (2001), Should Courts Order PAS Children to Visit/Reside with the Alienated Parent? A Follow-up Study

Richard Gardner described 99 cases in which he recommended that the court order visitation with or transfer primary residential custody to the alienated parent.

Gardner, R. (1985), Recent Trends in Divorce and Custody Litigation

Gardner's classic paper in which he first described parental alienation syndrome.

Jaffe, A. M., Thakkar, M. J., Piron, P. (2017), Denial of Ambivalence as a Hallmark of Parental Alienation

This qualitative research explains how denial of ambivalence can be used to establish or rule out the existence of parental alienation in clinical and forensic settings.

Joshi, A. (2021), Leave No Child Behind: Parental Alienation in Family Courts

This article by PASG member Ashish Joshi was published in Litigation, a journal of the American Bar Association. Mr. Joshi interviews Dr. Richard Warshak, a trial court judge, and an appellate court judge.

Journal of Child Custody, 2016

This special section of the Journal of Child Custody, edited by Robert Geffner, Ph.D., consists of six articles that are highly critical of parental alienation. This section is a fountain of misinformation.

Kapur, Rakesh (2017), Parental Alienation Brochure

This brochure was created by Rakesh Kapur, M.D., a healthcare management consultant in New Delhi, India.

Kehrer, G. (2020), German Approach to Parental Alienation

PASG member Gerhard Kehrer this presentation regarding the "German Approach to Parental Alienation."

Kelly, J., Johnston, J. (2001), Reformulation of PAS

Joan Kelly and Janet Johnston criticized some aspects of Gardner's parental alienation syndrome and presented a reformulation, referring to "the alienated child" rather than "parental alienation."

Kloth-Zanard, J., Statistics Regarding High-Conflict Divorce

Joan T. Kloth-Zanard summarized studies as to how high-conflict damages children.  See her website for more:

Kopetski, L. M. (1998), Identifying Cases of Parent Alienation Syndrome, Parts I and II

Leona M. Kopetski, MSSW, was a social worker appointed by the court to conduct hundreds of child custody evaluations in Denver, Colorado, in the 1980s. She and the Family and Children's Evaluation Team in Colorado independently identified the phenomenon of parental alienation at about the same time as Richard Gardner did in New York.

Koppejan-Luitze, H. (2014), Pathway to Parental Alienation or Estrangement

Heleen Koppejan-Luitze wrote this paper as a student at Open Universiteit in the Netherlands.

Koppejan-Luitze, H. (2017), Parental Alienation Bibliography

PASG member Heleen Koppejan-Luitze developed this extensive bibliography regarding parental alienation as part of her master's thesis in her studies in The Netherlands.

Lewis, K. (2013). Parental Alienation: Emotional Child Abuse in Disguise

This book chapter - from a legal publication - explains why parental alienation constitutes child psychological abuse.

Lowenstein, L. (2013), Specific Treatment Approaches for PA

The treatment approaches are based on the eight manifestations of parental alienation, as described by R. Gardner.

Ludmer, B. (2015), Failed Conventional Therapy for PA

Quotations from Canadian cases, that traditional psychotherapy is not effective with severe PA.

Ludmer, B. (2016), Managing the Parental Alienation Case

This is a comprehensive PowerPoint presentation primarily intended for attorneys, which PASG members are welcome to adapt for their own presentations.

Ludmer, B. (2017). Generic Orders Requested for Co-parenting Behavior in Shared Parenting

This is a detailed draft, developed by PASG member Brian Ludmer, of rules to be implemented when shared parenting is comtemplated.

Marcus, 2018, Preventing Contact Failure

Judge Philip Marcus, PASG member from Israel, made this presentation at the AFCC conference in Washington, DC, in June 2018. The title is "Preventing Contact Failure and Alienation: A Multidisciplinary Program."

Marcus, P. (2017), Parental Responsibilities: Reformulating the Paradigm for Parent-Child Relationships, Part 1

PASG member and retired judge Philip Marcus published a comprehensive discussion of parental responsibilities. Part 1 addresses "what is wrong with the ways in which we deal with the children of separated parents and how to put them right."

Marcus, P. (2017), Parental Responsibilities: Reformulating the Paradigm for Parent-Child Relationships, Part 2

PASG member and retired judge Philip Marcus published a comprehensive discussion of parental responsibilities. Part 2 addresses "who has responsibilities to children and what are these responsibilities." This part explicitly discusses parental alienation.

Marcus, P. (2018), Contact Failure, Parental Alienation and Therapeutic Jurisprudence

This article, by PASG member Judge Philip Marcus, was published in Family Law Update, a journal of the International Bar Association Legal Practice Division. The article explains how contact failure is an emergency that should be addressed immediately by family court judges.

Marcus, P. (2018), Parental Alienation, Contact Refusal, and Maladaptive Gatekeeping: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Prevention of Contact Failure

Judge Philip Marcus, PASG member in Israel, wrote this book chapter, which primarily focuses on prevention of parental alienation. In 2019, this chapter will be published in a book issued by the International Society of Family Law.

Maturana, Sau-lyn Lee, et al. (2018), Characteristics and Experiences of Targeted Parents of Parental Alienation from Their Own Perspective: A Systematic Literature Review

The authors concluded, "Despite feeling despair, frustration, and isolation, targeted parents appear to be resilient and seek out positive coping strategies."

Mendoza Amaro, A. (2020), Parental alienation and its evaluation: A bibliometric analysis

The authors identified 221 publications regarding parental alienation in 89 journals, published between January 2000 and June 2017.

Myers, J. E. B. (1993), Expert Testimony Describing Psychological Syndromes

Sometimes parental alienation syndrome is described as a "nondiagnostic syndrome." Most PASG members would not agree with that assertion. However, here is the article in which John Myers coined the term "nondiagnostic syndrome."

O’Sullivan, B. (2013), The Alienated Child

This is perhaps the first article regarding parental alienation published in the mental health or legal professional literature in Ireland. The author, PASG member Brian O'Sullivan, reviewed the international empirical literature regarding parental alienation.

O’Sullivan, B. (2018), Being Alien: The Lived Experiences of Alienated Parents in Ireland

In this PowerPoint presentation, PASG member Brian O'Sullivan provides and overview of parental alienation and summarizes his research on alienated parents. The presentation was given at the Tavistock Clinic, London, U.K. This presentation was made black-and-white and somewhat abridged, in order to fit on this website. You can obtain the original presentation from

O’Sullivan, B. (2018), Parental Alienation – A Systemic Perspective

This article by PASG member Brian O'Sullivan explains how well known concepts from family systems theory help to explain the family patterns and dynamics that result in parental alienation. This article was published in the June 2018 issue (Number 157) of Context Magazine, a publication of the Association for Family Therapy and Systemic Practice. The entire issue was devoted to parental alienation.

Odinetz, O. (2015), Séparations, le Concept de l’Aliénation Parentale

This lengthy overview of parental alienation by PASG member Olga Odinetz was published in a French magazine for the general public, leRotarien.

Ongider-Gregory, N. (2015), A Bicultural Comparison

Research proposal, objective measures for differentiating alienation and estrangement.

PAAO – Brochure, 2012

This brochure is called "Parental Alienation: Undermining and interfering with a normal child-parent bond." It was published by the Parental Alienation Awareness Organization and the National Child Abuse Hotline.

PASG 2017 – Program Book

This is the program book for the First International Conference of Parental Alienation Study Group in Washington, DC, during October 21-23, 2017.

PASG 2018 – Program Book

This is the program book for the Second International Conference of Parental Alienation Study Group in Stockholm, Sweden, during August 24-25, 2018.

PASG 2019 – Program Book

This is the program book for the Third International Conference of Parental Alienation Study Group, held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, during September 12-14, 2019.

PASG2019, Alvarez, Mary

Current Research Activities and Programming for Mild and Moderate Parent Rejection

PASG2019, Andexler, Chris

Forgiveness: The Key for a Better Tomorrow

PASG2019, Baker, Amy J. L.

Parental Alienation and Science: The Big Picture

PASG2019, Baker, Amy J. L.

Attitudes of Abused Children: Do They Exhibit the Eight Behavioral Manifestations of Parental Alienation?

PASG2019, Bernet, William

How Did We Get Here? Where Are We Headed?

PASG2019, Bernet, William

Panel: Historical Highlights

PASG2019, Bernet, William

Confusion and Consensus over Definitions

PASG2019, Bossory, Andrew

Legal Panel Discussion: Preparing Your Case and Withstanding Cross-Examination

PASG2019, Camos, Walter

Nipping Alienation in the Bud: Wouldn't It Be Loverly If We Went Out of Business?

PASG2019, Carlier, Marie-France

Panel Discussion: Legal Challenges in Dealing with Parental Alienation: A View from the United Kingdom, Germany, and Belgium

PASG2019, Curl, David

Top Ten Strategies to Conquer Parental Alienation

PASG2019, Drejza, Mark

Personal Story 5

PASG2019, Flood, Randy

Unique Challenges for Targeted Parents: How Attorneys Can Use Parent Coaching to Help Clients

PASG2019, Gottlieb, Linda

Nuts and Bolts of Effective Therapy for the Continuum of Alienation

PASG2019, Guerra Gonzalez, Jorge

Panel Discussion: Parental Alienation in International Courts

PASG2019, Harman, Jennifer

Prevalence of Adults Who Are the Targets of Parental Alienating Behaviors and Their Impact: Results from Three National Polls

PASG2019, Harman, Jennifer

Panel Discussion: What Are the Pressing Research Questions in the Field?

PASG2019, Jones, Margaret

Shaming: A Powerful Tool in the Alienator's Toolbox

PASG2019, Joshi, Ashish

Parental Alienation: The Legal Landscape and Pitfalls

PASG2019, Kloth-Zanard, Joan

Panel Discussion: Holding the Alienating Parent Accountable to the Court to Relinquish Alienating Behaviors: Imposing Time Limits

PASG2019, Koppejan, Heleen

Can Alienating Parents be Identified by Displays of Emotion?

PASG2019, Lorandos, Demosthenes

Parental Alienation in the U.S. Courts: 1985-2018

PASG2019, Lorandos, Demosthenes

Passing a Daubert Hearing

PASG2019, MacWillie, Catherine

Brave New World: What a Revamped Family Law System Would Look Like

PASG2019, Marcus, Philip

Proactive Management of Parental Alienation Cases in Israeli Courts: A Novel Approach

PASG2019, Matthewson, Mandy

Stories from the Family and Interpersonal Relationships Lab in Tasmania: A Summary of the Forgotten Families Project

PASG2019, McGee, William

Panel Discussion: Parental Alienation and the Media

PASG2019, Megged, Shuly

Can We Force "Spontaneous" Reunification? Systemic Therapy with Parental Alienation

PASG2019, Miller, Steven G.

Parental Alienation Doesn't Always Make Sense

PASG2019, Moon Dancer, Sandra

Introducing the Voice of the Targeted Parent into the Conference

PASG2019, Moon Dancer, Sandra

The Four Bodies of Consciousness: Critical Awareness and the Importance of Balance for the Targeted Parent

PASG2019, Morrison, Stephen

Involving the Next Generation of Researchers and Funders

PASG2019, Murray, Colleen

Holding the Alienating Parent Accountable to the Court to Relinquish Alienating Behaviors: Imposing Time Limits

PASG2019, Rothus, Lisa

Assessments in the 21st Century: Evidence-Based Meets Expert System Technology

PASG2019, Sparkman, Shazia Nagamia

Legal Panel Discussion: Preparing Your Case and Withstanding Cross-Examination

PASG2019, Woodall, Nick

Panel Discussion: Promising Recipes: Active Ingredients of Effective Outcomes in More Traditional Reunification Interventions

PASG2019, Wygant, Shawn

The Science Behind False Allegations of Child Abuse

Proposal for PARP in DSM-5-TR

This is the draft proposal as of June 30, 2022. Send comments and suggestions to

Reay, K. (2015), Family Reflections

Kathleen Reay's description of Family Reflections, an intervention for severe parental alienation.

Statement that PASG does not function as a certifying body for professionals

This statement, prepared by the Public and Professional Accountability Committee of PASG, clarifies that PASG DOES NOT function as a certifying body for professionals. Membership in PASG reflects interest in the field of parental alienation. It does not signify any type of credentialing, specialization, expertise, or certification in the field of parental alienation or in any related field.

Verrocchio, M.C., Baker, A.J.L., Marchetti, D. (2017), Adult Report of Childhood Exposure to Parental Alienation at Different Development Time Periods

The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between exposure to parental alienation and different developmental time periods and psychological maltreatment. The time periods were age 0-7, age 8-12, and age 13-18.

Verrocchio, MC, Baker, AJL (2015), Italian Adults’ Recall of Childhood Exposure to Parental Loyalty Conflicts

Amy J. L. Baker and Maria Cristina Verrocchio have published several articles that show correlations between childhood exposure to parental conflict and alienating behaviors to subsequent well-being as adults. This article is one example of their research.

Warshak RA (2015), Ten Parental Alienation Fallacies That Compromise Decisions in Court and in Therapy

Here is the abstract of the "PA Fallacies" article by Richard Warshak, with instructions on how to obtain the entire article.

Warshak, R. (2010), Family Bridges

Richard Warshak's description of Family Bridges, an intervention for severe parental alienation.

Warshak, R. (2015), Parental Alienation: Overview, Management, Intervention, and Practice Tips

An important, lengthy overview of parental alienation by Richard Warshak, which was published in the Journal of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers.

Weir K. (2011), High-Conflict Contact Disputes: Evidence of the Extreme Unreliability of Some Children’s Ascertainable Wishes and Feelings

The author, a British child psychiatrist, concluded that evaluators and courts should not take a child's contact refusal at face value, but should observe the child during a prolonged visit with the rejected parent.

Whitcombe, S. (2014), Psychopathology and Parental Alienation

An award-winning paper regarding the conceptualization of parental alienation as a disorder or a syndrome.

Whitcombe, S. (2017), Parental Alienation or Justifiable Estrangement? Assessing a Child’s Resistance to a Parent in the UK

PASG member Sue Whitcombe published this article with suggestions on how to distinguish alienation and estrangement. It is noteworthy that this was published in Seen and Heard, the journal of The Professional Association for Children's Guardians, Family Court Advisers and Independent Social Workers, so it should influence practice in the United Kingdom.

Zaplotnik, M. (2017), Starševsko Odtujevanje [Parental Alienation]

This article by PASG member Matej Zaplotnik was published in Pravosodni Bilten (Judicial Bulletin). It was the first article published in a professional journal in Slovenia regarding parental alienation.

Zicavo Martínez, N. (2008), La Alienación Parental y el Proceso de la Padrectomía

Nelson Zicavo Martínez, a psychologist in Chile, published "Parental Alienation and the Process of Parentectomy" in Revista Cubana de Psicología.